Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article



By Aaron Hoover


Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”


Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”



related link:

麻豆传媒app下载免费 草榴短视频app下载免费 fi11含羞草app下载免费 小姐姐直播成版人 小仙女app下载免费 杏花直播成版人 初见直播成版人 向日葵app下载免费 抖阴视频app污下载安装 奶茶视频成版人 豆奶短视频成版人 秀色直播app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 千层浪直播成版人 小天仙直播成版人 暗夜直播app污下载安装 酷咪直播app污下载安装 荔枝成版人 小怪兽app污下载安装 69热app下载免费 9uu成版人 花心视频成版人 盘她s直播app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 91香蕉视频成版人 蜜桃直播成版人 桃花成版人 盘她直播成版人 云雨直播app下载免费 夜狼直播成版人 A头条app污下载安装 花心视频app污下载安装 烟花巷直播成版人 69热app污下载安装 水仙直播app下载免费 黄瓜视频app污下载安装 黄瓜视频人app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 小奶狗app下载免费 小狐仙app下载免费 蜜蜂视频app下载免费 成人直播成版人 茄子视频成版人 快猫短视频成版人 Kitty直播成版人 心上人直播app下载免费 小奶狗视频app下载免费 鲍鱼视频成版人 七秒鱼直播app下载免费 遇见直播成版人 花椒直播app下载免费 花粥直播app污下载安装 酷咪直播app下载免费 咪哒直播app污下载安装 柚子直播app下载免费 千层浪视频app下载免费 花椒直播app下载免费 swag台湾app污下载安装 快喵app污下载安装 Kitty直播app污下载安装 黄瓜成版人 香蕉app污下载安装 花仙子直播app污下载安装 豌豆直播app下载免费 泡芙短视频成版人 丝瓜草莓视频成版人 食色app下载免费 蝴蝶直播app下载免费 成版人短视频app污下载安装 云上花app下载免费 成人直播app下载免费 丝瓜视频污成版人 成版人短视频app污下载安装 后宫视频app下载免费 蝶恋花app下载免费 骚虎直播app下载免费 桃花app下载免费 主播大秀app下载免费 骚虎直播app下载免费 bobo直播app下载免费 樱桃成版人 盘他直播app污下载安装 芭乐app污下载安装 猫咪视频app污下载安装 春水堂成版人 小宝贝直播app下载免费 泡泡直播app下载免费 草榴直播成版人 bobo直播app下载免费 豆奶app污下载安装 粉色app污下载安装 骚虎直播成版人 千层浪app下载免费 草莓直播成版人 富二代f2抖音成版人 啪嗒视频成版人 七秒鱼直播成版人 木瓜视频成版人 享爱app下载免费 七仙女直播app下载免费 IAVBOBOapp下载免费 快狐成版人 小喵直播app下载免费 蚪音成版人 木瓜视频app污下载安装 春水堂app下载免费 奶茶视频成版人 69视频成版人 兔子直播成版人 望月直播app污下载安装 花粥直播app污下载安装 葫芦娃视频app污下载安装 含羞草实验研究所app下载免费 烟花巷直播成版人 圣女直播成版人 小喵直播app下载免费 香草成视频人成版人 暗夜直播app下载免费 成版人抖音成版人 左手视频成版人 柠檬视频app下载免费 宅男之家成版人 食色短视频成版人 彩云直播app下载免费 烟花直播成版人 粉色app污下载安装 蜜橙视频app污下载安装 月光宝盒直播成版人 桃花直播成版人 千层浪直播成版人 铁牛app下载免费 美岁直播app污下载安装 夜巴黎直播app污下载安装 蝶恋花直播app污下载安装 依恋直播app下载免费 蓝精灵直播app污下载安装 笔芯直播app下载免费 花心社区成版人 大番号app下载免费 恋夜秀场成版人 69视频app下载免费 可乐视频成版人 恋人直播成版人 花粥直播成版人 西瓜直播app污下载安装 91香蕉视频成版人 富二代f2抖音app下载免费 小优app污下载安装 食色app下载免费 月色直播app污下载安装 富二代f2短视频app下载免费 69视频app污下载安装 小可爱app污下载安装 最污直播app下载免费 奶茶视频app下载免费 水蜜桃成版人 花心成版人 遇见直播成版人 硬汉视频成版人 卡哇伊直播成版人 s8视频app污下载安装 盘他app下载免费 蘑菇视频app下载免费 月夜直播app污下载安装 享爱直播app污下载安装 月亮直播成版人 么么直播app污下载安装 探探直播app下载免费 樱桃直播app下载免费 bobo直播成版人 黄瓜视频app污下载安装 污软件app下载免费 青草视频成版人 ML聚合app污下载安装 蓝精灵直播app下载免费 佳丽直播视频成版人 咪哒app污下载安装 享爱成版人 草鱼成版人 咪咪直播成版人 东京视频app污下载安装 大象视频app污下载安装 d2天堂app下载免费 酷咪直播app下载免费 豆奶成版人 薰衣草直播成版人 四虎app污下载安装 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app污下载安装 蓝精灵直播app污下载安装 7秒鱼app污下载安装 蜜蜂视频app污下载安装 AVnight成版人 么么直播app污下载安装 后宫成版人 BB直播app污下载安装 享爱直播app污下载安装 繁花直播app下载免费 health2app下载免费 主播福利app下载免费 压寨直播app污下载安装 小怪兽直播app污下载安装 梦幻直播app下载免费 铁牛app下载免费 蜜橙视频app污下载安装 榴莲视频成版人 秀儿直播app污下载安装 七仙女直播成版人 草莓视频app污下载安装 内裤直播成版人 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app污下载安装 花心app下载免费 望月直播app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 月亮视频成版人 七秒鱼app下载免费 富二代f2抖音成版人 年华直播app污下载安装 主播福利成版人 年轻人片app下载免费 暗夜直播成版人 春水堂视频app污下载安装 望月成版人 圣女直播app下载免费 铁牛视频app污下载安装 夜夜直播app污下载安装 骚虎直播app下载免费 年华直播成版人 铁牛视频成版人 年轻人片成版人 西瓜直播成版人 草榴短视频app下载免费 七仙女直播app下载免费 红颜成版人 陌秀直播app下载免费 可乐视频app下载免费 冈本app下载免费 香蕉视频app下载免费 米老鼠直播app污下载安装 iavbobo成版人 小猪视频app污下载安装 Kitty直播app污下载安装 小奶狗成版人 云上花成版人 冈本视频app下载免费 春水堂app下载免费 梦幻直播app污下载安装 爱爱视频成版人 大菠萝app污下载安装 成人直播app下载免费 朵朵直播成版人 小可爱app下载免费 繁花直播app下载免费 享爱直播成版人 成人快手成版人 食色成版人 成版人音色短视频app污下载安装 花心视频app下载免费 红颜app污下载安装 梦露直播app下载免费 IAVBOBOapp下载免费 污直播成版人 性福宝app下载免费 樱桃直播app污下载安装 暖暖直播app下载免费 桃花app下载免费 压寨直播app污下载安装 lutube成版人 swag台湾成版人 佳丽直播app污下载安装 草鱼app下载免费 A头条app下载免费 花姬直播app污下载安装 奶茶视频成版人 美梦视频成版人 趣播app污下载安装 逗趣直播app下载免费 主播大秀成版人 快猫app污下载安装 花姿直播成版人 小姐姐直播成版人 9uuapp污下载安装 杏吧直播app污下载安装 猛虎直播app污下载安装 麻豆视频app下载免费 奶茶视频app下载免费 花姿直播app污下载安装 彩色直播app污下载安装 JOJO直播app污下载安装 久草视频app下载免费 免费黃色直播成版人 Avbobo成版人 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 91视频app污下载安装 成版人抖音富二代成版人 avgo成版人 彩云直播app污下载安装 盘她直播app污下载安装 暖暖直播成版人 享爱成版人 泡泡直播成版人 梦幻直播app污下载安装 Avnightapp下载免费 压寨直播app下载免费 猛虎直播app污下载安装 蝶恋花直播app污下载安装 初恋视频app下载免费 草鱼成版人 微杏app下载免费 春水堂app下载免费 咪哒直播app污下载安装 向日葵视频app下载免费 大西瓜视频app下载免费 光棍影院app污下载安装 fi11含羞草成版人 啪嗒视频成版人 四虎app下载免费 小天仙直播app污下载安装 逗趣直播成版人 蜜柚app下载免费 豌豆直播app污下载安装 花心视频app下载免费 花心直播成版人 小草莓app污下载安装 橙子直播app污下载安装 含羞草视频成版人 东京视频成版人 樱花雨直播app污下载安装 小v视频成版人 月光宝盒直播app污下载安装 卡哇伊app污下载安装 麻豆传媒直播成版人 葡萄视频成版人 月夜直播app下载免费 西瓜直播成版人 富二代短视频app下载免费 食色app下载免费 污软件成版人 彩云直播app下载免费 火爆社区app下载免费 成版人快手app下载免费 卡哇伊直播app污下载安装 樱花成版人 豆奶成版人 香蕉app下载免费 番茄视频app下载免费 奶茶视频app污下载安装 花姿app下载免费 红杏视频成版人 lutubeapp污下载安装 夜狼直播成版人 千层浪直播成版人 七仙女直播成版人 笔芯直播app下载免费 色秀直播app污下载安装 香草成视频人app污下载安装 小米粒直播app下载免费 骚虎直播app污下载安装 夜巴黎直播成版人 名优馆app污下载安装 水晶直播app污下载安装 水晶直播app污下载安装 美梦视频成版人 蜜蜂视频app下载免费 年轻人片app污下载安装 蝴蝶直播app污下载安装 Kitty直播成版人 富二代f2抖音app下载免费 91香蕉视频app污下载安装 千层浪直播app下载免费 灭火卫视app污下载安装 草鱼成版人 享爱app污下载安装 嘿嘿连载成版人 含羞草实验研究所app下载免费 小喵直播app污下载安装 6房间视频直播app污下载安装 黄页荔枝成版人 烟花直播app污下载安装 盘他app下载免费 佳丽直播app污下载安装 比心直播app污下载安装 桃花app下载免费 小狐仙视频成版人 午夜直播间app污下载安装 豆奶抖音短视频app下载免费 樱花成版人 秀色直播app下载免费 彩云直播成版人 桃花app污下载安装 萝卜视频成版人 芭乐视频app污下载安装 swag视频成版人 猛虎直播app下载免费 花样视频app下载免费 水果视频成版人 后宫app下载免费 盘她app污下载安装 含羞草视频app污下载安装 尤蜜视频app污下载安装 成版人音色短视频app下载免费 老王视频成版人 柠檬直播app污下载安装 媚妹秀app污下载安装 套路直播app污下载安装 菠萝蜜视频app污下载安装 音色短视频app下载免费 荔枝视频app污下载安装 云上花app污下载安装 草莓直播app下载免费 Kitty直播app污下载安装 7秒鱼app下载免费 7秒鱼app下载免费 水晶直播成版人 月亮视频成版人 七秒鱼直播app污下载安装 成版人音色短视频成版人 彩色直播app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 佳丽直播app下载免费 快喵app下载免费 秀色直播app下载免费 妖妖直播app污下载安装 花椒直播app污下载安装 享爱成版人 月色直播app污下载安装 小公主直播成版人 番茄直播app污下载安装 芭乐app污下载安装 猫咪视频app下载免费 黄瓜视频人app下载免费 四虎app下载免费 小奶猫app下载免费 盘她app下载免费 s8视频成版人 小优app污下载安装 avgoapp污下载安装 9uu成版人 香蕉视频app污下载安装 桃花成版人 色秀直播成版人 fi11含羞草成版人 花仙子直播app下载免费 番茄社区成版人 黄色直播软件app污下载安装 荔枝视频app下载免费 直播盒子成版人 小可爱成版人 猛虎视频成版人 青草视频app下载免费 麻豆传媒直播app下载免费 小花螺直播app污下载安装 蘑菇视频app污下载安装 七秒鱼app下载免费 薰衣草直播app污下载安装 芭乐成版人 蘑菇视频app污下载安装 主播大秀成版人 黄瓜app下载免费 夜遇直播号成版人 皮卡丘直播app下载免费 黄鱼视频app污下载安装 d2天堂成版人 咪哒成版人 金屋藏娇直播间app下载免费 小狐仙app污下载安装 陌秀直播app下载免费 含羞草成版人 花狐狸直播app污下载安装 水蜜桃app污下载安装 最污直播成版人 avgoapp污下载安装 小姐姐直播app下载免费 水果视频app污下载安装 火辣直播成版人 蘑菇视频app下载免费 Kitty直播app下载免费 月色直播app污下载安装 大小姐直播app污下载安装 初恋视频app污下载安装 花姬直播app污下载安装 朵朵直播app下载免费 四虎成版人 卡哇伊app下载免费 黄瓜视频人app下载免费 比心成版人 草莓直播app污下载安装 茄子视频app污下载安装 91香蕉视频app下载免费 好嗨哟直播app下载免费 老王视频app下载免费 金鱼直播成版人 比心app下载免费 花仙子直播app污下载安装 灭火卫视成版人 成人快手app污下载安装 四虎app污下载安装 后宫app污下载安装 花姿直播成版人 浪浪视频app污下载安装 小蝌蚪视频app污下载安装 蚪音成版人 烟花直播成版人 恋人直播app下载免费 骚虎直播app下载免费 抖阴直播app下载免费 柠檬视频app下载免费 佳丽直播视频app下载免费 宅男之家app下载免费 樱桃app下载免费 茶馆视频app下载免费 后宫app下载免费 趣播成版人 柠檬直播app污下载安装 抖阴视频成版人 秀色小抖音成版人 富二代f2app污下载安装 金屋藏娇直播间成版人 小酒窝直播app污下载安装 猛虎直播app污下载安装 年轻人片app污下载安装 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 朵朵直播成版人 后宫视频app污下载安装 黄瓜直播成版人 番茄直播成版人 草榴视频成版人 fi11含羞草app下载免费 久草成版人 千层浪视频app下载免费 牛牛视频成版人 小公主直播成版人 丝瓜草莓视频app污下载安装 圣女直播app污下载安装 秀儿直播成版人 比心直播app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 猛虎视频app下载免费 盘她直播app污下载安装 成版人短视频app污下载安装 考拉直播app污下载安装 乐购直播app污下载安装 桃花直播app下载免费 恋夜秀场成版人 红高粱直播app污下载安装 夏娃直播app下载免费 性直播app污下载安装 幸福宝成版人 东京视频成版人 成版人抖音富二代app污下载安装 主播福利成版人 花秀神器app下载免费 夜巴黎直播成版人 雨燕直播成版人 水晶直播app下载免费 野花视频成版人 含羞草实验研究所app下载免费 成版人短视频成版人 梦幻直播成版人 恋夜秀场app污下载安装 盘她直播app下载免费 台湾swagapp下载免费 云上花直播app下载免费 91香蕉视频app下载免费 蜜桃直播app下载免费 小狐仙直播app污下载安装 佳丽直播成版人 成版人快手成版人 主播福利成版人 灭火卫视成版人 黄瓜视频app下载免费 小花螺直播成版人 遇见直播app下载免费 bobo直播app污下载安装 樱桃视频app下载免费 含羞草实验研究所app污下载安装 月夜直播app污下载安装 IAVBOBO成版人 小怪兽app污下载安装 初恋视频成版人 草鱼app污下载安装 葫芦娃视频app污下载安装 茶馆视频app下载免费 探探直播成版人 蜜柚直播app污下载安装 葫芦娃视频app污下载安装 咪哒直播app污下载安装 铁牛视频成版人 豌豆直播app污下载安装 草榴视频成版人 荔枝app污下载安装 免费黃色直播成版人 富二代f2成版人 秀儿直播app污下载安装 水蜜桃app污下载安装 茄子视频成版人 月夜直播成版人 初恋直播成版人 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 薰衣草直播成版人 花心视频app下载免费 樱花视频成版人 薰衣草直播app下载免费 芭乐视频成版人 尤蜜app下载免费 富二代f2短视频成版人 萝卜视频成版人 硬汉视频app污下载安装 宅男之家成版人 香草成视频人成版人 秋葵视频app污下载安装 橙子直播成版人 冈本视频app污下载安装 f2富二代成版人 草莓app下载免费 粉色成版人 橙子视频成版人 Avboboapp下载免费 小狐仙app污下载安装 91直播app污下载安装 趣播app下载免费 小优app污下载安装 后宫视频app污下载安装 铁牛视频app下载免费 草榴视频app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 AVBOBO成版人 小狐仙视频成版人 丝瓜草莓视频成版人 遇见直播app下载免费 水仙直播app污下载安装 小怪兽直播成版人 蝴蝶直播app污下载安装 抖阴直播app下载免费 好嗨哟直播成版人 Huluwaapp下载免费 樱花直播app污下载安装 小奶狗app下载免费 Avnightapp污下载安装 小花螺直播app下载免费 向日葵成版人 豆奶app污下载安装 花样视频app下载免费 直播盒子app下载免费 s8视频app污下载安装 咪咪直播app下载免费 七仙女直播app污下载安装 十里桃花直播成版人 ML聚合直播app污下载安装 性福宝app下载免费 云上花成版人 小狐仙直播app下载免费 91视频app污下载安装 抖阴视频app下载免费 黄瓜视频app污下载安装 套路直播app污下载安装 快狐成版人 微啪app污下载安装 梦露直播app污下载安装 快猫app污下载安装 恋夜秀场app下载免费 香蕉视频app污下载安装 樱花视频app污下载安装 丝瓜视频污成版人 卡哇伊成版人 卖肉直播app污下载安装 黄瓜app下载免费 豌豆直播成版人 月夜直播app下载免费 夜魅直播app污下载安装 蝴蝶直播app下载免费 小姐姐直播app污下载安装 荔枝成版人 快狐短视频成版人 妖妖直播成版人 梦幻直播app下载免费 红高粱直播app下载免费 Huluwaapp下载免费 秀色小抖音app污下载安装 富二代f2抖音成版人 MM直播成版人 火爆社区app下载免费 美岁直播app下载免费 泡芙短视频成版人 富二代f2抖音成版人 丝瓜视频污app下载免费 咪哒app污下载安装 樱桃直播app下载免费 成版人音色短视频app污下载安装 乐购直播app污下载安装 雨云直播app污下载安装 红楼直播app下载免费 小猪视频app下载免费 快喵成版人 花心视频app污下载安装 小米粒直播app污下载安装 春水堂成版人 朵朵直播成版人 夜猫视频app污下载安装 夜魅直播app下载免费 后宫app污下载安装 暖暖直播app污下载安装 午夜直播间app下载免费 91视频成版人 花姬app污下载安装 后宫视频app下载免费 d2天堂app下载免费 春水堂成版人 音色短视频app污下载安装 好嗨哟直播成版人 嘿嘿连载app污下载安装 丝瓜视频app污下载安装 春水堂app下载免费 ML聚合app下载免费 榴莲视频app污下载安装 bobo直播app下载免费 7秒鱼app污下载安装 JOJO直播app污下载安装 一对一直播app下载免费 JOJO直播app下载免费 草榴短视频app污下载安装 花友直播成版人 樱桃成版人 主播福利app污下载安装 芭乐视频成版人 左手视频成版人 BB直播app下载免费 粉色成版人 污软件app污下载安装 麻豆传媒映画app污下载安装 豆奶抖音短视频app下载免费 野花视频app污下载安装 豆奶视频app下载免费 秀儿直播app下载免费 小仙女app污下载安装 快狐短视频成版人 探花直播app污下载安装 快猫视频app下载免费 花心社区app下载免费 69热app下载免费 杏趣直播app污下载安装 十里桃花直播app下载免费 幸福宝成版人 fi11含羞草成版人 咪咪直播app下载免费 铁牛视频app下载免费 梦鹿直播成版人 红高粱直播app污下载安装 七仙女直播app污下载安装 秀色小抖音成版人 左手视频app污下载安装 69热app污下载安装 微杏app污下载安装 月色直播app污下载安装 蜜橙视频成版人 含羞草视频成版人 快猫app下载免费 黄瓜app下载免费 成人直播成版人 色秀直播成版人 花心直播app污下载安装 金鱼直播app污下载安装 月亮视频成版人 享受直播app污下载安装 免费黃色直播app下载免费 蘑菇视频app污下载安装 望月app下载免费 本色视频成版人 快猫视频app下载免费 恋人直播成版人 恋人直播app污下载安装 猫咪软件app下载免费 微杏app下载免费 朵朵直播app污下载安装 恋人直播app污下载安装 Huluwaapp下载免费 望月直播app污下载安装 丝瓜视频app下载免费 合欢视频成版人 大菠萝app下载免费 花姿直播成版人 金鱼直播成版人 茄子app下载免费 麻豆传媒app污下载安装 宅男之家成版人 蜜橙视频app下载免费 水晶直播成版人 向日葵app污下载安装 春水堂app下载免费 月亮视频成版人 盘她app污下载安装 荔枝app下载免费 番茄社区app下载免费 后宫app污下载安装 宅男之家app污下载安装 午夜直播成版人